Creatine is the most researched supplement. However, there is a lack of research for long term use, short term supplementation of creatine is seen as safe and without any real side effects other than gaining weight (Francaux and Poortmans, 2006). Nevertheless, the weight gained is water weight as creatine allows muscles to hold water meaning fat-free mass is gained. However, caution should be advised with long-term use of creatine as the studies are limited. The suggested dose for creatine is variable, with many different regimens showing benefits.
The safety of creatine supplementation has not been studied in infants and adolescents. The literature best supports creatine supplementation for increased performance in short-duration (Butts, Jacobs and Silvis, 2017), maximal-intensity resistance training.
There are different types of creatine the most researched and used creatine supplement is creatine monohydrate. However, this is not a look no further; somebody types responds to other forms of creatine. Creatine monohydrate is a form of the creatine supplement that increases muscle performance in short-duration, high-intensity resistance exercises, which rely on the phosphocreatine energy system and adenosine triphosphate the muscles with energy (Hall and Trojian, 2013). The effective dosing for creatine supplementation includes loading with 0.3 g per bodyweight kg for 5 to 7 days (Hall and Trojian, 2013)., followed by maintenance dosing at 0.03 g per bodyweight kg each day. Commonly supplemented for 4 to 6 weeks (Hall and Trojian, 2013).
For example, if a weightlifter weighed 85 kg then for 5 - 7 days, they should load 25g a day then supplement 2.55g for the next 4 to 6 weeks. Adding the creatine monohydrate powder within a post or pre-workout shake is ideal; however, different methods like using warm water can be used. But no evidence supports any better performance results when using warm water with creatine monohydrate. There is also no evidence that supports using pill creatine has benefitted performance so powder or pill.
Butts, J., Jacobs, B. and Silvis, M. (2017). Creatine Use in Sports. Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach, 10(1), p.31–34.
Francaux, M. and Poortmans, J.R. (2006). Side Effects of Creatine Supplementation in Athletes. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 1(4), p.311–323.
Hall, M. and Trojian, T.H. (2013). Creatine Supplementation. Current Sports Medicine Reports, 12(4), p.240–244.